In a new study from the University of Pennsylvania and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, scientists used an innovative technique to study how cells move in a three-dimensional matrix, similar to the structure of certain tissues, such as the skin. They discovered an entirely new type of cell movement whereby the nucleus helps propel cells through the matrix like a piston in an engine, generating pressure that thrusts the cell’s plasma membrane forward.
"Our work elucidated a highly intriguing question: how cells move when they are in the complex and physiologically relevant environment of a 3-D extracellular matrix," said Hyun (Michel) Koo, a professor in the Department of Orthodontics at Penn’s School of Dental Medicine. "We discovered that the nucleus can act as a piston that physically compartmentalizes the cell cytoplasm and increases the hydrostatic pressure driving the cell motility within a 3-D matrix."
R. J. Petrie, H. Koo, K. M. Yamada. Generation of compartmentalized pressure by a nuclear piston governs cell motility in a 3D matrix. Science, 2014; 345 (6200): 1062 DOI: 10.1126/science.1256965
Penn and NIH researchers measured the internal pressure of individual fibroblast cells (in orange) moving through a three-dimensional matrix (in blue). They found that, in this environment, the cells’ nuclei operate like an engine’s piston to push the cell forward. Credit: University of Pennsylvania/NIDCR
I love science, and it pains me to think that so many are terrified of the subject or feel that choosing science means you cannot also choose compassion, or the arts, or be awed by nature. Science is not meant to cure us of mystery, but to reinvent and reinvigorate it.
Human consciousness is simply a state of matter, like a solid or liquid – but quantum
Thanks to the work of a small group neuroscientists and theoretical physicists over the last few years, we may finally have found a way of analyzing the mysterious, metaphysical realm of consciousness in a scientific manner. The latest breakthrough in this new field, published by Max Tegmark of MIT, postulates that consciousness is actually a state of matter. “Just as there are many types of liquids, there are many types of consciousness,” he says. With this new model, Tegmark says that consciousness can be described in terms of quantum mechanics and information theory, allowing us to scientifically tackle murky topics such as self awareness, and why we perceive the world in classical three-dimensional terms, rather than the infinite number of objective realities offered up by the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.
oops i just deleted this and don't feel like writing it again